Quantitative Aspects of Bone Densitometry (ICRU Report 81)

This ICRU report systematically addresses the quantities and units used in bone densitometry utilizing both x-ray and ultrasound techniques. For x-ray techniques the most important quantities are bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral mass (BMM), and for ultrasound techniques the speed of sound (SOS) or velocity of sound (VOS), and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA). In the first   section of the report these quantities are precisely defined in accordance with the SI system and ISO standards and ambiguities in their current use in the literature are addressed. For example, it is suggested that areal bone mineral density measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) be indicated by a subscript "a" (BMDa) to differentiate it from the true volumetric quantity BMD measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Another suggestion is the renaming of bone mineral content (BMC) to bone mineral mass (BMM).


Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing (ICRU Report 80)

The present Report examines the dosimetry performed in the industrial applications of radiation processing.


Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis in Medical Imaging (ICRU Report 79)

Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis has become the standard statistical methodology for evaluating the diagnostic performance of imaging systems that require a human observer or a computer program to make a diagnostic decision. more

Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Proton-Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 78)

Proton therapy is a rapidly expanding modality and the number of new facilities is rapidly increasing.  The advantage of proton beams relative to conventional photon beams for radiation therapy lies in their superior dose distributions.   The efficacy of proton therapy is well established for several tumor categories.  The present report provides information necessary to standardize techniques and procedures and to harmonize the clinical descriptions of proton treatments with those of other modalities. The concepts and recommendations in other ICRU reports concerning radiation therapy are extended to proton therapy. more

Elastic Scattering of Electrons and Positrons (ICRU Report 77)

The present Report treats cross-section data for elastic scattering of electrons and positrons traversing various materials. Those data are prerequisite for transport analyses through either Monte Carlo simulations or analytic transport theory.


Measurement Quality Assurance for Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry (ICRU Report 76)

The report is intended for individuals and organizations responsible for calibrations and measurements of ionizing radiation. It is also expected to be of interest to agencies responsible for regulating radiological activities. The information and guidance provided should be useful to personnel making radiation measurements as well as to the users of calibration services. The report discusses methods for establishing and maintaining a measurement quality assurance program. more

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