Sampling of Radionuclides in the Environment (ICRU Report 75)

This Report provides a conceptual guide for designing statistically based sampling approaches for the analysis of radionuclides in environmental media such as soil, sediment, water, plants, aquatic organisms and animals. Some causes and examples of the magnitude of the observed sampling variability are provided. General concepts and principles of statistical sampling are briefly described in a qualitative manner, including standard sampling designs with their random and systematic errors. This is followed by a presentation of equations and practical examples for estimating statistical quantities such as the means, proportions, or ratios of two quantities. Sampling to estimate spatial patterns, temporal trends, and spatio-temporal variations is briefly described. This report is also a resource to helpful and relevant statistics literature. It does not attempt to provide step-by-step guidelines for designing specific sampling protocols, nor does it provide details for the analysis of data resulting from sampling programs. For these tasks, advice, recommendations and recipes are found in the literature cited.


Patient Dosimetry for X Rays used in Medical Imaging (Report 74)

The present Report is the first report published by the ICRU that deals with patient dosimetry for x rays used in diagnostic medical imaging. The impetus for this report derives from the broad and systemic application of x rays for diagnostic and interventional imaging. The increasing number of patients that benefits from radiology and the increasing number and types of procedures that are applied to these patients have resulted in a dramatic increase of the population dose, which, in developed countries, often exceeds the natural radiation levels. The situation in developing countries will sooner or later exhibit the same trend.


Stopping of Ions Heavier Than Helium (Report 73)

Following up on ICRU Reports 37 (Stopping powers for electronsand positrons) and 49 (Stopping powers and ranges for protonsand alpha particles), this report presents a critical survey on measurements and calculations of quantities governing thepenetration of heavy ions through condensed and gaseous matterover an energy range from 1 keV/u upward. 


Dosimetry of Beta Rays and Low-Energy Photons for Brachytherapy with Sealed Sources (Report 72)

This Report examines the dosimetry of beta-ray and low-energy photon-emitting sealed brachytherapy sources, specifically the following: (a) planar and concave sources of beta rays from90Sr—90Y and 106Ru—106Rh, mainly used for ophthalmic plaques; (b) seed and wire sources of beta rays from 90Sr—90Y,90Y, and 32P, and shell sources of 32P, for applications in intravascular brachytherapy; and (c) seed sources of low-energy photons from 125I and 103Pd, for use in ophthalmic plaques and as interstitial implants.


Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Electron Beam Therapy (Report 71)

ICRU Report 71, Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Electron Beam Therapy. The Report extends the concepts and recommendations for photons contained in ICRU Reports 50 and 62 to electron beam therapy. Reflecting the similarities between electron and photon treatments, the section on volumes in the present Report is very similar to the section on volumes in Reports 50 and 62, but evolutionary clarifications applicable to both modalities are presented. The concepts of Gross Tumor Volume (GTV), Clinical Target Volume (CTV), Planning Target Volume (PTV), Organs at Risk (OARs) and Planning Organ at Risk Volume (PRV) are recalled, or refined, and new examples are given to illustrate these concepts.


Image Quality in Chest Radiography (Report 70)

Image quality in chest radiography is an important, but complex subject. The complicated anatomy of the chest, as well as the various ways that chest disease may manifest, require careful consideration of radiographic technique. The manner in which human observers deal with the complexity of chest images adds further dimensions to image analysis that are not found in other radiographic examinations. more

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